There are four stages to the life cycle of fruit flies, these are: eggs, larvae (maggots), pupae and adults. Khan
Under the right conditions, a fruit fly egg only takes about a day to hatch. Kamalnathan
Srinivasan (1994) reported Opius fletcheri Silv.
The USDA-ARS areawide IPM programs of melon fruit fly started in 1999 in collaboration with the Hawaiian State Department of Agriculture and University of Hawaii, using the environmentally sound strategies such as field sanitation, male annihilation with male lures and attractants, protein bait sprays/traps, augmentative releases of biological control agents (Fopius arisanus and Psyttalia fletcheri), and sterile insect release.
Female adults cause blemishes inside fruits and veg- etables. Hamacek
the life cycle of Queensland fruit fly (QFF) how it spreads; how to monitor fruit and vegetables for signs of infestation and control numbers; View transcript [Narrator] Queensland fruit fly can be a problem for home gardeners and commercial growers because it attacks a large variety of fruit and vegetables, making them inedible. . The full-grown larvae come out of the fruit by making one or two exit holes for pupation in the soil. JD
Studies on the fruit flies of the Philippines Islands, Indonesia and Malaya. in Hawaii, Hawaiian Agricultural Station, University of Hawaii. Miyatake (1998b) reported that males show heritable variation in pre-mating period, while no such effects were observed in the females. Abbas
Monitoring and control with parapheromone lures/cue-lure traps. AJ
Similar level of parasitization (<3%) was also reported from northern India by Nishida (1963).
Fruit fly Management TYPICAL LIFE CYCLE Fusarium wilt distances within a short time; exceptional observa-tions showed a Bactrocera sp. The lower and upper developmental thresholds for eggs were 11.4 and 36.4° C (Messenger and Flitters, … .
The melon fruit fly has been reported to infest 95% of bitter gourd fruits in Papua (New Guinea), and 90% snake gourd and 60 to 87% pumpkin fruits in Solomon Islands (Hollingsworth et al., 1997).
The males of the B. cucurbitae mate with females for 10 or more hours, and sperm transfer increases with the increase in copulation time. JC
momordica) and snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina and T. cucumeria) are the most preferred hosts.
The application of molasses + malathion (Limithion 50 EC) and water in the ratio of 1: 0.1: 100 provides good control of melon fly (Akhtaruzzaman et al., 2000). The population of B. cucurbitae mass reared for a long time has a shorter pre-mating period than the population reared for short-term. DA
The fly begins as an egg, inside of which is the embryo. . Since, the maggots damage the fruits internally, it is difficult to control this pest with insecticides.
Reddy (1997) reported triazophos to be the most effective insecticide against this pest on bitter gourd.
At maturity, the larvae …
The average longevity of male was 12.74 ± 2.83 and 13.09 ± 2.37 days whereas, that of female was 15.03 ± 3.14 and 15.56 ± 2.67 days during both the years in June and July.
Insecticidal trials for the control of the melon fruit fly. John L. Capinera, in Handbook of Vegetable Pests, 2001. Vargas
(1990) reported that no wild tephritids were caught with cue-lure traps after intensification of distribution of cue-lure strings, but the mating rates of mature females did not decrease as compared to those on control islands. Xu
There are 3 larval stages for this insect.
On the other hand, the incorporation of a number of different techniques including the sterile insect technique, transgene based embryo-specific lethality system, and quarantine, in addition to the available local area management options, could be exploited for better results in wide area management of melon fruit fly. Cool temperatures slow the development cycle, while warm temperatures speed it up. Chinajariyawong
Other species of fruit fly are Carpomya In this technique, sterile males are released in the fields for mating with the wild females. .
In the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, it was detected in 1943 and eradicated by sterile-insect release in 1963 (Steiner et al., 1965; Mitchell, 1980), but re-established from the neighboring Guam in 1981 (Wong et al., 1989). Development from egg to adult stage takes 13 days at 29° C in Solomon Islands (Hollingsworth et al., 1997). Lee
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. Chemo-sterilization (by exposing the flies to 0.5 g tepa in drinking water for 24 h) and gamma irradiation are the only widely tested and accepted male-sterile techniques against melon fly (Gojrati and Keiser, 1974; Odani et al., 1991). JW
. Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. Import controls carried out in airports in France since 1993 on tropical fruits have revealed the presence of 12 non-European and one European species of Tephritidae, (Bayart et al., 1997). KE
She can lay up to 500 eggs, making it difficult to control the population.
Young larvae leave the necrotic region and move to healthy tissue, where they often introduce various pathogens and hasten fruit decomposition. T
To break the reproduction cycle and population increase, growers need to remove all unharvested fruits or vegetables from a field by completely burying them deep into the soil.
Bagging of fruits on the tree (3 to 4 cm long) with 2 layers of paper bags at 2 to 3 day intervals minimizes fruit fly infestation and increases the net returns by 40 to 58% (Fang, 1989a, b; Jaiswal et al., 1997). Diflubenzuron has also been reported to be effective in controlling the melon fly (Mishra and Singh, 1999).
It has been reported to damage 81 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), snap melon (C. melo var. Chan
Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the efficacy of these bio-control agents against B. cucurbitae for practical use in integrated pest management programs. Screening of muskmelon varieties against melon fruit fly, Monitoring of fruit fly population in bitter gourd crop with the help of lure trap, Journal of Research, Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius, Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of Agricultural Scientists, Effectiveness of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait spray applied to border area plants for control of melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), Hoe effective is GF-120 fruit fly bait spray applied to border area sorghum plants for control of melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), Pakistan Journal of Science and Industrial Research, Control of fruit fly of bitter gourd using synthetic pyrethroids, Revue Agricole et Sucriere de ltle Mauriee, Evaluation of certain new insecticides against cucurbit fruit fly (, On the morphology of the immature stages of, Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, Aflanzenschutz, Umwdtschutz.
Sinha (1997) reported that culture filterate of the fungus, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, to be an effective bio-agent against B. cucurbitae larvae.
Completion of the Queensland fruit fly life cycle is dependent on temperature and moisture. Raju
They can lay about 1,000 eggs. A
Generally, the females prefer to lay the eggs in soft tender fruit tissues by piercing them with the ovipositor.
The number of eggs found at any time in the reproductive organs is no indication of the total number of eggs an individual female is capable of depo… FL
This is an open access paper. DG
The extent of losses vary between 30 to 100%, depending on the cucurbit species and the season.
An adult female fruit fly can lay up to 2,000 eggs on the surface of anything that's moist and rotting. Studies on comparative biology of the melon fruit fly. (1993) captured 2.36 to 4.57 flies/ trap/ day in poison bait traps containing trichlorfon in bitter gourd. Pawar
The aim of local area management is to suppress the pest, rather than eradicate it.
This reduces the market value of the produce. S
In the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, release of sterile males increased the effectiveness of the sterile insect program (Hendrichs et al., 2005). There are no reports on the successful use of bio-control agents against the melon fruit fly.
Stages of the life cycle. K
Host stability of wild cucurbits for melon fly, Area-wide pest management of fruit flies in hawaiian fruits and vegetables, Recent Trends on Sterile Insect Technique and Area-wide Integrated Pest Management, Population dynamics, habitat preference and seasonal distribution patterns of Oriental fruit fly and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in an agricultural area, Ecological framework for integrated pest management of fruit flies in papaya orchards, Proceedings of the third International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Genting Highlands, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Demography of four Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared at five constant temperatures, Area-wide Integrated Pest Management for Exotic Fruit Flies in Hawaii, Principles of area-wide integrated tsetse fly control using the sterile insect technique, Pink bollworm integrated management using sterile insects under field trial conditions, Imperial Valley, California, Area-Wide Control of Fruit Flies and Other Insect Pests, The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia, Australian Center for International Agricultural Research, Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae), Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, and T.R. 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